There were several self-governing princely states of India that did not belong to British India and Patiala state is one of them. After independence, the Maharaja of Patiala joined the new Union of India.
A Jat Sikh chieftain named Baba Ala Singh founded Patiala state in 1763. He was the one who built Patiala fort which is also known as Qila Mubarak. The Afghans defeated Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. After the loss, Afghans took control of most regions in Punjab. The history of Patiala state talks about constant power struggle for 40 long years with the Afghan Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire and the Sikh Empire of Lahore. The Raja of Patiala signed a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh of Lahore in 1808. The history of Patiala state has seen great rulers like Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh and Yadvindra Singh who were given their due respect by the British. Patiala State also received a 17-gun salute from the British. The Hindus of Sirhind were the first settlers of Patiala. That’s the reason why the city was planned as per temple architecture. Maharaja Karam Singh reigned from 1813 to 1845 and assisted the British during the First Anglo Sikh war against the Sikh Empire of Maharajah Ranjit Singh.
History of Patiala state begins when the Sikh Patiala Royal House leader Mohan Singh defeated the Bhullars and Dhaliwals with the help of Guru’s men and established the Village of Meharaj in 1627. After Mohan’s death during a fight against the Bhatti’s, his younger son Kala succeeded the “chaudriyat”. Kala was succeeded by his son Phul who founded his village by his own name near Meharaj. This was one of the first Sikh Kingdoms of Punjab. One of Phul’s sons Chota Ram was baptised. His son Ala Singh became the leader in 1714.
This was just the beginning of the history of Patiala state. There are several other interesting historical events that took place in the Patiala Princely state. For that you will have to start researching by reading relevant history books. Enjoy exploring them!